Maize Cultivation Methods in India for higher Earnings
Maize contributes 25% of the world’s food production. And it ranks third in terms of area and production of cereal crops. Moreover, the site under maize in India is 7.27 million hectares. And irrigated cultivation of maize is done during the Kharif season. In both these climatic zones, maize is cultivated in the fields around the house, called Bari. Maize can be grown throughout the year with irrigation facilities. In the late-maturing paddy cropping method, we can successfully cultivate maize in the Zayed season in January-February instead of the Zayed paddy crop.
Climate for Maize Cultivation
Maize is a summer crop. In all cases, the temperature should be around 25℃. A hot and dry environment is preferred during ripening. Frost can be harmful to any stage of the crop. The annual rainfall for unirrigated maize cultivation is 50 to 100 cms.
Choice of Land
More fertile loamy soil with more ventilation, good water drainage, and abundant organic matter is suitable for maximum growth and yield. We should cultivate maize in such land whose pH value is 6.0 to 7.0. Waterlogging is a very harmful factor for the maize crop. Therefore, uphill land is best for maximum production of maize. Generally, maize can be cultivated successfully on all soils, from sandy to heavy clay.
Sowing for the Kharif crop should be done from the second fortnight of June to the first fortnight of July and the Rabi crop in November. The sowing time for the Zayed crop is from January to March. We can plant late-maturing varieties in case of early sown. In contrast, we should select early maturing varieties for late sowing. Moreover, Massey ferguson 1035 is best for making soil more fertile and efficient.
After ploughing the field once with a soil-reversing plough, two to three times by vertical ploughing with the cultivator and quality tractor like New holland 3510, the land gets fine. Then, we should make the area level by rolling the Pata. It gives good germination. Twenty days before sowing, 20-25 carts of dung manure per hectare are mixed. For the control of termites, it is necessary to apply 25 kg chlorpyriphos powder at the time of the last ploughing.
Selection of Varieties
Based on the research done under the Indian Integrated Maize Improvement Project, the following varieties have been recommended for summer maize cultivation.
- Vivek Makkah Hybrid – 27
Generally, while selecting and using a hybrid variety of maize for summer maize success, new seeds can be used up to 2 to seven times. For the re-selection of seeds of complex types, the seeds must be collected from the middle part of the field by a well-filled cob. Seedlings of plants at the edge of the area should not be used as seeds.
Seed Quantity and Treatment
Generally, 15-20 kg seed of hybrid species is sufficient for one hectare and 40-50 kg seed per hectare for fodder crop. In Zayed, 20 to 25 kg seed is required per hectare for corn cultivation. First, we should treat seeds with Thyram or Bavistin at 2 grams per kg of fungicide. After treatment, we should sow the seed at 3-5 cm depth. Use the queue method for sowing.
Keeping the interval based on the season gives good production. In the Zayed season crop, the distance between row to row should be 45-60 cm, and the distance between plants should be 25 cm. Generally, the desired product is obtained if the field has 25-30 thousand saplings per acre.
If weeding is not done on time, the production gets significantly affected. The land remains guttery by hoeing. Due to good air circulation in the soil, food and water are available in abundance to the roots. Weeds are controlled by spraying Eghazine or Meijin weed killer 500 grams of active ingredients 1-1.5 kg per hectare by making a solution in 700 to 800 litres of water.
The use of nilgai medicine should be done after sowing, before germination. We should do it within 1-2 days of sowing. After this, handle at crop stage for 20-30 days. Then, we should condemn it in a queued queue. It should be uprooted with hands and condemned. After this, we should apply the soil to the plants.
Both excess and deficiency of water are harmful to the crop. Irrigation is not required in Kharif season. In summer crop, it is necessary to keep irrigating the field at an interval of 10-15 days. 8-10 irrigations are required during the entire cropping period. In which three irrigations are done before flowering and three after flowering.
Additional Benefits from Intercropping
In order to get more production in intercropping, such crop should be selected, which will increase the total output. For example, coral or urad can be cultivated inter-cropping with summer maize.
Harvesting – Threshing
In crops planted for grain, when the top layer of the corn is dry, the grain should not be pressed by the nail, the private leaves dry up, and the stem starts drying and twisting. Separate the corn from the field and dry it in strong sunlight on a dry floor. Then, we should harvest the crop planted for fodder in the male Manjari stage. Because in this stage, the amount of food protein is high. Harvest the crop grown for corn at the milking stage.
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